Making Up the Two Rakaʿāt’s (units) Before Fajr

Until the time of a ṣalāh remains, the time for the performance of sunnah ṣalāh still remains. However, after the time of a ṣalāh elapses, the sunnah ṣalāh of that subsequent ṣalāh will not be made up. This is because prophetic narrations generally do not have mention and guidance of making up sunnah ṣalāh. Nevertheless, prophetic narrations have mention of making up the two rakaʿāt’s (units) before fajr after the sun has risen.

We will now discuss this in detail in light of prophetic narrations and verdicts of the fuqahā (jurists).

It is narrated by ʿImrān bin Husayn (r.a.) that: “We were travelling along with the Messenger of Allāh (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) during the night. When the last portion of the night remained, we went to sleep and did not awaken until we felt the heat of the sun. We all panicked and rushed to perform wudu (ritual ablution), when the Messenger of Allāh (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) told us to be calm. We went away from that place and travelled on until the sun rose and became high in the sky. The Messenger of Allāh (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) performed wudu (ritual ablution) and instructed Bilāl (r.a.) to call out the adhān. He performed the two rakaʿāt’s (units) sunnah’s of fajr and then instructed for the iqāmah to be called out and then we all performed the fajr ṣalāh. (Musnad Aḥmad)

This narration shows that if an individual has not performed the fajr ṣalāh and the sun has risen, then one should perform fajr ṣalāh along with the sunnah’s after sunrise.

In some narrations, there is instruction of making up only the sunnah’s after sunrise in the event of missing them. Accordingly, it is narrated from Abū Hurayrah (r.a.) that the Messenger of Allāh (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “Whoever has not performed the two rakaʿāt’s (units) before fajr, they should do so after the sun has risen.” (Ibn Ḥibbān)

In another narration it is mentioned that the Messenger of Allāh (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “Whoever forgets to perform two rakaʿāt’s (units) before fajr, should do so after sunrise. (Mustadrak Ḥākim)

It was narrated from Abū Hurayrah (r.a.) that the Messenger of Allāh (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) slept and missed the two rakaʿāt’s (units) before fajr, so he made them up after the sun had risen. (Ibn Mājah)

There are many other narrations of a similar nature.

It is narrated from Ibn Sīrīn who narrates regarding Ibn ʿUmar that he performed the two rakaʿāt’s (units) sunnah’s of fajr after sun had become bright.

In light of narrations of this nature the fuqahā (jurists) of the ḥanafī school of thought say that when a person is unable to perform the two rakaʿāt’s (units) sunnah’s prior to the fajr ṣalāh, then instead of performing them after the fajr ṣalāh, one should perform it after sunrise once the makrūh (disliked) time has passed.

However, there is a narration which is narrated by Qays bin Fahad that he once came to the masjid while the Messenger of Allāh (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was leading the fajr ṣalāh. He joined the congregation, and after the ṣalāh was complete, he stood and performed two rakaʿāt’s (units). The Messenger of Allāh (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) asked him, “Which two rakaʿāt’s (units) are these?” He replied that he did not perform them prior to the fajr ṣalāh. On hearing this, the Messenger of Allāh (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) remained silent and did not say anything. (Ḥākim)

Some scholars have suggested this narration to be weak. Whereas others have countered this, arguing that it is strong. On this account, some scholars (like Imām Aḥmad) have said that a person who misses his two rakaʿāt’s (units) before fajr, it is permitted that it is performed after the fajr ṣalāh prior to sunrise. Although, it is preferred to perform them after sunrise due to the wording of other narrations.

On the other hand, other scholars which include the ḥanafī’s, have opined that as the above was an isolated incident while many narrations have clear instructions of performing them after sunrise, the latter will be given preference over the isolated incident.

(Adapted from Nafl wa Sunnat Namāzō(n) ke Faḍāil wa Aḥkām by Muftī Muhammad Riḍwan. 

Published by Kutub Khāna Idāra Gufrān, Rawalpindi.)

Categories: FiqhTags: , , , , , , , , ,

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