What are the conditions for the validity of īṣāl e-thawāb (donating reward)?
When another person is donated reward, it is necessary that the donator receives reward before they can donate to another. For that reason, īṣāl e-thawāb (donating reward) has a few primary conditions for it it be valid. Until they are not met, īṣāl e-thawāb (donating reward) will not be valid.
The conditions are:
(1). It is necessary that the one doing īṣāl e-thawāb (donating reward) is a Muslim. As without imān (faith), no action is considered a worship thereby no reward is gained which can be donated.
(2). It is necessary that the receiver of the reward is Muslim for the validity of iṣāl e-thawāb (donating reward), though they may be a transgressor and not righteous.
(3). The action must be performed solely for the pleasure of Allah and should not contain any element of riyā (ostentation) or showing off. As any action committed with riyā (ostentation) does not garner any reward, and when the doer of the action does not receive any reward, how will donating it to someone else be possible?
(4). The action itself should be within the boundary and dictates of Islamic law and not be anything contrary to it. Similarly, there should not be any element which is a bidaʿh (innovation). As an action which is contrary to the dictates of Islamic law does not remain a worship, and an action with bidaʿh (innovation) leaves the ambit of worship, but rather renders its doer sinful.
(Adapted from Ṣadaqa-e-Jāriyah wa Īṣāl e-Thawāb ke Faḍāil wa Aḥkām by Muftī Muhammad Riḍwan.
Published by Kutub Khāna Idāra Gufrān, Rawalpindi.)